Actor Observer Bias (Definition + Examples)

Picture yourself on a bus. It’s a hot day, there is no air conditioning on, and it’s super crowded. You’re not in the best mood, and neither is anyone on the bus. No one is talking. 

The door opens and a guy walks on. He decides to sit next to you and starts chatting with you. He’s really chatty. And he’s loud. It’s really not helping the vibe of the bus and people are starting to give him dirty looks. So you give him one-word answers and try to get the conversation to die down. This guy is drawing too much attention to himself, and you don’t want him to embarrass himself anymore. 

Okay. Put that image away for a while. Now, picture yourself as the guy walking onto the bus. You sit down next to someone who doesn’t look so happy, but friendly enough. To lift their spirits, you start to have a pleasant conversation with them. They brush you off, give you the cold shoulder, and are rather curt. Wow, you think to yourself. This person is rude. 

This situation is an example of a bias that you might not even know you have. It’s not a racial bias or a bias based on the person’s gender. It’s simply a bias based on who you are and what actions are taking place. If you are the actor (the person giving the cold shoulder,) you are likely to view the situation differently than the observer (the person doing the talking.) 

What Is the Actor Observer Bias? 

The actor-observer bias is a cognitive bias that is often referred to as “actor-observer asymmetry.” It suggests that we attribute the causes of behavior differently based on whether we are the actor or the observer. 

If we are the actor, we are likely to attribute our actions to outside stimuli. The person in the first example was the actor. They observed the stuffiness of the bus and the people who were giving the man dirty looks. You didn’t engage in conversation because you were rude. You just wanted to save this man the embarrassment of people being upset with him. 

If we are the observer, we are likely to attribute the actor’s actions to their personality. The man in the first example was the observer. He saw the person giving him the cold shoulder and assumed that it was due to them being a rude person. 

The actor-observer bias is a bias because it may often lead to wrong assumptions. The person on the bus isn’t rude, and their actions had good intentions. They probably did not think that they were being rude – they may have thought they were being polite. 

If we flip the actor and the observer around in this example, we’ll see just how this bias leads us astray. 

Now, the man doing the talking is the actor. Before he hopped on the bus, he saw that the sun was shining and the birds were singing. Everyone seemed to be in a good mood. So when he hopped on the bus, he wanted to spread a little joy. Maybe his fellow passenger would feel better if the bus wasn’t so darn silent! 

The person that he is talking to is the observer. They attribute the man’s actions (him talking on the bus) to his personality. He’s obnoxious and not self-aware. Depending on the conversation, the person may think he’s creepy or a bit crazy! 

As you can see, this bias can lead to some big misunderstandings. 

How to Avoid Actor Observer Bias 

The two people on the bus may develop a strained or tense relationship because of this interaction and their biases. In a different situation, they could be great pals! 

And this bias doesn’t just happen on buses, between two people, or once and a while. This bias is always affecting the way that we see the world and the attribution process. Our minds don’t always have the time, consciousness, or motivation to attribute behavior to every single factor that could be involved. (We also may not know every factor influencing a person’s behavior: the lessons they learned as school, trauma they experienced, etc.) 

So how do you avoid making an inaccurate assumption about someone or their actions? How do you avoid acting inappropriately? 

First, it’s important to be aware of this bias. Congratulations! You’re on the right track. By understanding that these biases are real, and that they have real consequences, you can begin to overcome them. 

As you are making judgements about someone, take a step back. Are you the actor or the observer in the situation? Let’s say you are observing someone at a protest looting. You think, “What an animal! They are lawless and have no respect!” You’re certainly attributing the behavior of the protester to their character. Let’s take a step back. What is the protester, or the actor, seeing? They may attribute their actions to outside stimuli, to the energy of the protests, the overall cause, the frustration felt by many people of color who are tired of being shot and killed by police. How might you act if you saw the same things as the protester? If the protester becomes the observer, what might they think about your character, as you stay inside and not act?

This process doesn’t always feel comfortable. Our minds like to take the easy road, as opposed to the road with conflicting ideas. We tend to hold a bias toward information that we already know and believe. Challenging those ideas by putting ourselves in another person’s shoes, or thinking about the other ways that we might be perceived, is not an easy task. 

This may require practice. It requires mindfulness. It sometimes requires admitting that your biases have led you astray in the past, and that it’s time to change your opinions or beliefs. These changes, lessons, and practices lead to growth. By understanding biases and leaving assumptions at the door, you can become a smarter, more empathetic person.

How to reference this article:

Theodore Thudium. (2020, June). Actor Observer Bias (Definition + Examples). Retrieved from

Theodore Thudium

Theodore is a professional psychology educator with over 10 years of experience creating educational content on the internet. PracticalPsychology started as a helpful collection of psychological articles to help other students, which has expanded to a Youtube channel with over 2,000,000 subscribers and an online website with 500+ posts.