37+ Instructional Strategies (Examples + Quizzes)

practical psychology logo
Published by:
Practical Psychology
Andrew English
Reviewed by:
Andrew English, Ph.D.

Teachers use many tools to help students learn. These tools are called instructional strategies. Think of them like recipes. Just as you might choose a different recipe depending on who you're cooking for, teachers pick different teaching strategies depending on their students. 

Just like we all require different shoe sizes for our feet, we all differ in how we learn best. Teachers use various instructional strategies because every classroom has students who learn differently. It's not only educators who should be familiar with a variety of instructional strategies; parents, caregivers, and anyone looking to help others learn can benefit from these different strategies as well.

These strategies are developed and taught by educational psychologists. Educational psychologists are trained in cognitive, behavioral, and social psychology. They work in schools, research facilities, and in the community. 

In this blog post, we'll talk about some common teaching strategies and give examples. We hope this will help everyone understand how teachers work hard to help all students learn in the best way possible.

Why are Different Strategies Important?

Imagine if everyone wore the same size shoes. Some people’s feet would be squished, while others would swim in them. Just like our shoe sizes, how we learn is different for everyone. That’s why teachers have many instructional strategies in their toolbox.

Just as we all have our likes and dislikes, we also have our ways of learning. Some kids might love to read, while others might love to experiment and touch things. Additionally, there are students who have learning disabilities. They might face challenges like difficulty reading, trouble with math, or face challenges focusing their attention. Different strategies can help make sure everyone's learning needs are met.

Educational and child psychologists study how kids learn. They examine the brain to determine which strategies work best. Research has found that different strategies can help kids understand, remember, and use new information. For example, some kids might need more visuals, like pictures or videos, while others might need to discuss topics aloud.

Researchers are always studying how we learn. They're finding new ways to teach and help students of all types succeed. By trying different strategies, teachers can use the latest, most effective methods in their classrooms.

In life, we face many situations that require different skills. By using varied strategies, teachers prepare students for real-world challenges. Whether it's working on a team, solving a difficult problem, or learning new job skills, different teaching methods help children prepare for the future.

Think about your favorite class or activity. Why do you like it? Maybe it’s fun and interesting, or you can do cool projects. Using different instructional strategies can make classes more engaging and exciting. Instead of just listening to a teacher talk, you might get to play a game, work on a project, or discuss a topic with classmates.

Teachers must have a mix of strategies. Whether helping a student with a learning disability, making lessons more exciting, or preparing kids for the future, varied teaching methods make a big difference. So, the next time you're in class and you play a game, have a group discussion, or watch a video, remember that it's all part of the big picture of helping everyone learn in the best way possible!

What are the Types of Learning?

school building

Like everyone has a unique personality, each individual has a preferred way of learning. These preferred methods, or learning styles, have been explored and classified into several distinct types. Understanding these can lead to a more tailored and effective learning experience.

Visual learners thrive when they can actually view information with their own eyes. Charts, diagrams, illustrations, and slideshows are their best friends. For these learners, a picture truly is worth a thousand words. They often remember information better when presented in a visual format, and they might doodle or create visual notes to help cement their understanding.

Auditory learners, on the other hand, benefit from hearing information. Listening to lectures, discussions, and audio recordings can be particularly effective for them. They might read aloud to themselves, engage in group discussions, or even create songs or rhymes to help remember facts. It’s common to find an auditory learner humming along to a tune that aids their memory.

Kinesthetic or tactile learners learn best through movement and touch. They prefer to dive in and actively participate in what they're learning. You'll often find these learners using their hands, moving around, or engaging in role-playing activities. They might struggle to sit still for extended periods and often benefit from frequent breaks or hands-on activities that tie into their studies.

Reading/writing learners prefer reading and writing as their primary learning mode. They feel most at ease when accessing books, articles, and notes. Writing summaries, jotting down annotations, or rewriting notes in their own words can benefit these learners.

It's also worth noting that many people don't fit neatly into just one of these categories. Instead, they might have a blend of preferred learning styles. For instance, a person might enjoy both visual aids and hands-on activities, combining elements of visual and kinesthetic learning.

Recognizing and understanding these distinct learning styles is essential to allowing educators to design lessons catered to diverse needs. Understanding our own learning style also helps us identify the most effective strategies for our personal growth.

If you scroll down to the bottom of the post, you can take a test to determine your preferred learning style! But first, let’s get into some examples of different instructional strategies.

1. Direct Instruction

What it is: Teaching specific things using lectures or demonstrations.

Example: A teacher stands in front of the class and lectures on how volcanoes work using a slideshow. Rote memorization is another example where students are taught simple facts they need to memorize.

Positives: It's clear and straightforward. If you have a lot to teach quickly, this works well.

Challenges: Some students might find it boring. Others might have trouble if they don't understand a part of the lecture since everything moves at a set pace.

Research Shows: This method, when done right, can help students remember facts. But, for deeper understanding, it's good to mix it with other strategies.

History & Usage: It has a long history, dating back to traditional schools and colleges, and is a tool commonly employed by most teachers at some point in their classrooms.

Best For: Auditory and reading/writing learners.

2. Interactive Instruction

What it is: Students talking and working together on topics. Also called “Collaborative Learning”.

Example: After reading a story, students break into small groups and discuss what they think the message is.

Positives: It can be more fun than just listening. Everyone gets a chance to talk and think.

Challenges: Certain students may be reservered or might not actively particiapate.

Research Shows: Discussing what you've learned can make it stick in your brain better.

History & Usage: This style became popular recently, like in the past few decades. It's used a lot in modern classrooms.

Best For: Everyone, but especially auditory learners.

3. Inductive Instruction

What it is: Learning from examples and then finding the rules or main ideas.

Example: A teacher shows many leaves and asks, "What do they all have in common?"

Positives: It's like solving a mystery, which can be fun and engaging.

Challenges: It might be confusing if you don't see the pattern.

Research Shows: It can enhance critical thinking skills, making you more adep at problem-solving.

History & Usage: It's been around for some time but became more popular with new teaching ideas in the 20th century.

Best For: Visual and kinesthetic learners.

4. Problem-based Learning

What it is: Starting with a real-life problem and trying to solve it.

Example: Figuring out how to reduce litter in the schoolyard.

Positives: It represents reality, our past experiences, and not just something we have to imagine..

Challenges: It can be tough because real problems can have many answers.

Research Shows: Helps in thinking skills and understanding the real world.

History & Usage: Emerged in the 1960s and is frequently used in institutions such as medical schools.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

5. Inquiry-based Learning

What it is: Teachers ask questions, and students find the answers.

Example: After seeing a rainbow, a teacher asks, "How do rainbows form?" and students investigate.

Positives: You get to be curious and find answers.

Challenges: Sometimes, it's hard to find the answer, and you might need help.

Research Shows: Asking questions and finding answers can make learning fun and lasting.

History & Usage: Popular in the 1900s, especially with science topics.

Best For: Visual and reading/writing learners.

6. Differentiated Instruction

What it is: Teaching in ways that fit each student's needs.

Example: For a reading task, some students get audiobooks, some read in pairs, and some read alone.

Positives: Each student receives what works best for their learning style.

Challenges: It's hard for a teacher to plan different things for everyone.

Research Shows: When students get what they need, they can learn better and faster.

History & Usage: Became popular in the late 1900s. Many modern teachers try to use it.

Best For: All types of learners because it's tailored for each one!

jigsaw puzzle

7. Flipped Classroom

What it is: Learn at home first (like watching videos), then do activities in class.

Example: Watching a video on fractions at home and then doing fraction puzzles with classmates the next day.

Positives: You can learn at your own pace at home and then get help in school if you need it.

Challenges: If you don't understand the video at home, you might feel lost in class.

Research Shows: It can help students be more active in their learning, but they need good resources at home.

History & Usage: Started getting popular in the early 2000s with the rise of online videos. Some modern schools and teachers use it.

Best For: Visual and reading/writing learners.

8. Concept Mapping

What it is: Drawing diagrams to connect ideas.

Example: Make a web with "Rainforests" in the middle and branches like "animals," "plants," and "climate."

Positives: It helps to see how things are linked and makes studying easier.

Challenges: Difficult if you don’t know where to start, what to link, or much about the topic.

Research Shows: Helps to organize thoughts and remember them better.

History & Usage: Became popular in the 1970s and 1980s. It's a common tool in schools today.

Best For: Visual learners.

9. Project-based Learning

What it is: Learning by doing big projects over time.

Example: Spending a month planning and building a model city with classmates.

Positives: It's hands-on, and you can see your progress.

Challenges: It requires planning and time. Some students might not participate fully.

Research Shows: Helps in understanding deep topics and teamwork.

History & Usage: Received more attention in the 20th century, especially in the latter half. It's common in many schools.

Best For: Kinesthetic and visual learners.

10. Game-based Learning

What it is: Using games to learn. Games can reward learning by offering prizes and other in-game incentives.

Example: Playing a computer game where you run a virtual farm and learn about plant cycles.

Positives: It's fun, and you might not realize you're learning!

Challenges: Some might get too focused on the game and not the learning.

Research Shows: Can increase motivation and make tough topics easier.

History & Usage: Grew with the rise of computers and video games in the late 1900s and 2000s.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

11. Experiential Learning

What it is: Learning by doing and then reflecting on what you learned.

Example: Planting a garden and writing a diary about what grows.

Positives: It's real-world and meaningful.

Challenges: It requires time and might not always go as planned.

Research Shows: Helps in deep understanding and connecting newly learned concepts to real life.

History & Usage: The idea has been around for ages, but it became popular in the 1900s.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

12. Socratic Method

What it is: Teaching by asking questions.

Example: After reading a story, the teacher asks, "Why do you think the character did that?"

Positives: Makes you think deeply and find answers yourself.

Challenges: Some might find it tricky if unsure of their answer.

Research Shows: Helps in critical thinking and understanding.

History & Usage: Named after the ancient philosopher Socrates and used in many advanced classes today.

Best For: Auditory learners.

13. Role-playing

What it is: Students act out scenarios, situations, or interactions.

Example: Students act out a historical scene, like the Boston Tea Party.

Positives: It's fun and brings stories to life.

Challenges: Some might feel shy or unsure about acting.

Research Shows: Helps remember details and see different viewpoints.

History & Usage: Used in many cultures for centuries but became a formal teaching method in the 1900s.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

14. Think-Pair-Share

What it is: Think about a question yourself, talk with a partner, and then share it with the class.

Example: After learning about clouds, the teacher asks, "How do clouds form?" Students think, discuss, and then share.

Positives: Everyone gets to think and speak.

Challenges: Some might not feel ready to share out loud.

Research Shows: Increases understanding and helps shy students participate.

History & Usage: Became popular in the late 1900s. Used in many classrooms today.

Best For: All learners, especially auditory.

15. Jigsaw Learning

What it is: Each person learns one piece of a larger learning objective (or topic), and then groups collaborate to instruct one another and to form a complete picture.

Example: In a group learning about frogs, one student learns about the habitat, another about food, and then they share.

Positives: Everyone becomes an expert on one thing.

Challenges: If someone doesn't learn their part well, it's tough for the group.

Research Shows: Increases responsibility and helps students depend on each other.

History & Usage: Received its name in the 1970s. Used in many group settings.

Best For: Auditory and reading/writing learners.

16. Brainstorming

What it is: Individuals gather many ideas or solutions for a specific topic.

Example: Listing all the possible uses for a paper clip.

Positives: There's no wrong answer, and it's creative.

Challenges: Some might feel their idea is silly and not shared.

Research Shows: Helps in creativity and seeing many perspectives.

History & Usage: Became a formal strategy in the 1900s, often in business and schools.

Best For: Visual learners.

17. Field Trips

What it is: Learning in the real world, outside of the classroom.

Example: Visiting a zoo to learn about animals.

Positives: It's fun and a change from regular classes.

Challenges: It requires planning and might be expensive.

Research Shows: Helps connect learning to the real world.

History & Usage: Has been around as long as education, but more organized in the 1900s.

Best For: Kinesthetic and visual learners.

18. Self-directed Learning

What it is: Choosing what and how you want to learn.

Example: Deciding to learn about stars and reading books, watching videos, and observing the night sky.

Positives: You're in charge, and it's about what you like.

Challenges: Without guidance, you might miss important parts.

Research Shows: Increases motivation and deep understanding.

History & Usage: Received more attention with online learning in the 2000s.

Best For: All learning styles.

19. Analogies and Metaphors

What it is: Explaining one thing by comparing it to another.

Example: Comparing the heart to a pump to explain how it moves blood.

Positives: Makes difficult ideas easier to understand.

Challenges: Some comparisons might be confusing if not explained well.

Research Shows: Helps with understanding and remembering complex concepts.

History & Usage: Has been a part of teaching for centuries in all cultures.

Best For: Visual and reading/writing learners.

20. Real-world Application

What it is: Applying what you learn to real life.

Example: After learning math formulas and figuring out how to budget a family vacation.

Positives: Makes learning feel useful and relevant.

Challenges: Some topics might not seem to have clear real-world uses.

Research Shows: Increases engagement and a learning application.

History & Usage: A classic tool in education that has gained more attention in the 21st century.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

21. Summarizing

What it is: Making a short version of what you learned.

Example: After reading a long river chapter, write a short paragraph about what rivers are and why they're important.

Positives: Helps remember main ideas.

Challenges: Deciding what's most important can be tricky.

Research Shows: Aids in memory and understanding.

History & Usage: An age-old method that received more focus with modern study techniques.

Best For: Reading/writing and auditory learners.

22. Modeling

What it is: Students observe the behavior of their teacher and then attempt to mimic that behavior.

Example: Teacher shows how to solve a math problem on the board, and then students try.

Positives: Students see a correct example first.

Challenges: Some might rely too much on the model and not think independently.

Research Shows: Helps with initial understanding and confidence.

History & Usage: Fundamental teaching strategy used universally.

Best For: Visual and kinesthetic learners.

23. Reciprocal Teaching

What it is: Students become the teachers in turns.

Example: After studying a topic, one student teaches it to the group, then another takes a turn.

Positives: Deepens understanding and builds confidence.

Challenges: Requires preparation, and some may feel shy.

Research Shows: Reinforces memory and promotes active participation.

History & Usage: Introduced in the 1980s, it's popular in group-based classrooms.

Best For: Auditory learners.

24. Mindfulness and Reflection


What it is: Taking time to think about what you learned.

Example: After a lesson, sit quietly and think about what stood out.

Positives: Helps in deep understanding and calming the mind.

Challenges: Some might find it hard to sit still or concentrate.

Research Shows: Boosts memory and emotional well-being.

History & Usage: While mindfulness has ancient roots, its use in education is a more recent trend, especially from the 2000s onward.

Best For: All learners.

25. Interactive Multimedia

What it is: Using videos, animations, and interactive tools for learning.

Example: Using a computer program to dissect a frog virtually.

Positives: Engaging and can show things not possible in a classroom.

Challenges: Requires technology and might distract from learning.

Research Shows: Can be more engaging than traditional methods, especially for complex subjects.

History & Usage: Grew with the rise of computers in the late 1900s and 2000s.

Best For: Visual and kinesthetic learners.

26. Peer Tutoring

What it is: Students helping other students understand topics better.

Example: After a math lesson, Lisa, who's good at math, helps Tom, who's having a tough time.

Positives: Both the tutor and the learner benefit. It's like teaching two students at once!

Challenges: There needs to be trust and respect between the students.

Research Shows: It can boost confidence and understanding for both parties.

History & Usage: It's been around in various forms but became structured in the 20th century.

Best For: Auditory learners.

27. Gamification

What it is: Using game elements in learning.

Example: A quiz app that awards points and badges for correct answers.

Positives: Makes learning fun and engaging.

Challenges: Some students might focus more on the game than on learning.

Research Shows: Can increase motivation and attention.

History & Usage: It's a newer method, growing fast with technology in the 21st century.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

28. Graphic Organizers

What it is: Using visuals like charts, webs, and maps to organize info.

Example: Drawing a "mind map" to show how ideas in a story connect.

Positives: Makes complex information clear and easy to see.

Challenges: Can take time to create, and not every topic might fit.

Research Shows: Helps in memory and understanding big ideas.

History & Usage: The strategy has grown with educational research in the 20th century.

Best For: Visual and reading/writing learners.

29. Mnemonic Devices

What it is: Memory aids or tricks to remember info.

Example: Using "PEMDAS" (Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subbtration) to remember the order of operations in math.

Positives: Makes hard-to-remember info stick.

Challenges: Over-relying on them can limit deeper understanding.

Research Shows: Good for short-term memory, especially for lists.

History & Usage: Ancient methods used across many cultures.

Best For: Auditory and reading/writing learners.

30. Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

What it is: Starting with a problem and learning by solving it.

Example: Given a mystery chemical, students must figure out what it is through experiments.

Positives: Feels like real-world problem-solving.

Challenges: Requires good guidance so students don't get lost.

Research Shows: Helps with critical thinking and applying knowledge.

History & Usage: Has roots in medical training but has expanded to many educational settings in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Best For: Kinesthetic learners.

31. Socratic Seminars

What it is: Discussion-based teaching inspired by the questioning method of Socrates.

Example: After reading a novel, students discuss its themes, guided by open-ended questions.

Positives: Enhances critical thinking and speaking skills.

Challenges: Can be intimidating for quieter students.

Research Shows: Aids in deeper understanding and verbal articulation.

History & Usage: Based on ancient Greek methods, but popularized in modern classrooms over the past few decades.

Best For: Auditory learners.

32. Case Studies

What it is: Analyzing real or fictional scenarios to learn about a subject.

Example: Business students studying the growth strategy of a successful company.

Positives: Provides real-world context and practical application.

Challenges: Can be time-consuming and might require background knowledge.

Research Shows: Effective for complex subjects and real-world problem-solving skills.

History & Usage: Widely used in professional schools, especially business and law, since the 20th century.

Best For: Reading/writing learners.

33. Debates

What it is: Students argue different sides of an issue.

Example: Debating the pros and cons of a new technology.

Positives: Enhances speaking, research, and critical thinking skills.

Challenges: Can become too heated if not managed well.

Research Shows: Aids in a more comprehensive understanding of the subject and builds better communication skills.

History & Usage: Has roots in ancient education systems, especially Greek, but remains popular today.

Best For: Auditory learners.

34. Exit Tickets

What it is: Students must answer a question before leaving the classroom.

Example: Ask the students a question, such as “What was the most interesting thing you learned today?” or “What is an example of this lesson in the real world?” Then the student writes down an answer and hands it in before they leave.

Positives: Enhances critical thinking and summarizing skills.

Challenges: Hard to assess if the student learned everything that was intended or just parts.

Research Shows: Is good for having students learn what they are most interested in.

History & Usage: A pretty modern invention, used more recently than before the modern education system.

Best For: Reading/writing learners.

35. Muddiest Point

What it is: Students anonymously share what the most confusing point of the lesson was.

Example: Instruct students to turn in a piece of paper highlighting the topic that confused them the most during the lesson.

Positives: Ensures everyone is learning the important content.

Challenges: If the problems are submitted anonymously, you won’t know which students struggle with what topic. If someone struggles more than others, you don’t know who to help.

Research Shows: This is a great way for teachers to learn the best methods for teaching a particular class.

History & Usage: Collecting feedback in this manner has traditionally been effective, but it's only in recent times that students have the option to maintain anonymity.

Best For: All learning styles.

36. Student-Led Reviews

What it is: Make a list of topics discussed and have students volunteer to explain one to the rest of the class.

Example: You taught about the solar system, so you put a list together that includes gravity, planet names, how many planets there are, etc. Students then volunteer to explain one of the topics to the class.

Positives: It doesn't only benefit the students who are uncertain and provides clarity to those who already understand.

Challenges: It could be the same student answering all the time, which takes away the opportunity for others to gain confidence.

Research Shows: This is a good way to make sure the whole class understands a topic since different people will explain it in different ways.

History & Usage: This has always been used, but more so in recent decades.

Best For: Auditory learners.

37. Portfolio Development

What it is: Students collect their best work and put it all together.

Example: Near the end of the year, the students are asked to reflect on the assignments they did and put together what they consider to be their top 10 work.

Positives: This portfolio can be used to boost confidence and apply for other opportunities, like jobs or scholarships.

Challenges: Since the students are selecting it for themselves, it might not be an accurate reflection of their best work.

Research Shows: STEM and arts students are more likely to complete a project like this since it is easier to include written and visual work.

History & Usage: This is a relatively new technique, especially when used as a teaching tool. However, people have been putting together portfolios for ages.

Best For: All kinds of learners.

Instructional Strategy Quiz


Can you figure out which instructional strategy is being used in the following scenarios? You can scroll down to the bottom of the post to find the answers.

Scenario 1:

Jenna, Max, Liam, and Ava are grouped. Each of them is given a different article about planets. After reading their articles, they'll teach their group mates about their assigned planet.

Scenario 2:

Mr. Thompson stands at the front of the classroom. He's explaining how the water cycle works. He draws diagrams on the board, talks about evaporation, and then discusses rainfall. The students take notes as they listen.

Scenario 3:

In Mr. Lee's math class, there are three sets of math problems on the board. Each set is color-coded: green, yellow, and red. Students pick the color that best fits their comfort level. Green is the easiest, and red is the most challenging.

Scenario 4:

In Ms. Garcia's class, students are given a mystery box. They can shake it, weigh it, and listen to it, but they can't open it. Their task? Guess what's inside using clues and questions.

Scenario 5:

Lucas logs into a computer program. It's a game where he has to answer questions about grammar to move his character forward and collect coins. The better he does, the more levels he unlocks.

Scenario 6:

Before coming to class, Sarah watched a video at home about the history of the pyramids. The next day in school, her teacher, Mrs. Roberts, asks the class to discuss what they learned from the video and to create a model pyramid together.

What's Your Learning Style?

Many people exhibit a combination of learning styles, so it's essential to find what works best for you and adapt your learning strategies accordingly! 

Remember, this test is a simple tool and might not capture the full depth of your learning preferences, so it might take some trial and error to find what works best for you.

Answer the following questions with "Mostly True" or "Mostly False" based on what you feel generally applies to you.

  1. When trying to understand something new, I prefer to see charts, diagrams, or infographics.
  1. I can remember song lyrics more easily than written information in textbooks.
  1. I'd rather participate in a hands-on workshop than listen to a lecture.
  1. I often take detailed notes during classes or meetings, even if I never read them again.
  1. When lost, I'd rather look at a map than ask someone for directions.
  1. I can easily follow spoken instructions without needing to write them down.
  1. When assembling something, I usually skip the manual and figure it out by playing with the parts.
  1. I find it helpful to read aloud or talk to myself when studying or trying to understand something.
  1. I think better when moving, like pacing around or tapping my foot.
  1. I prefer reading stories or articles to watching TV or videos on the same topic.


Mostly True for #1 & #5: You lean toward being a Visual Learner. You might find it helpful to use charts, diagrams, and other visual aids when studying.

Mostly True for #2 & #6: You seem to be an Auditory Learner. Listening to lectures, discussions or even turning your notes into songs could benefit you.

Mostly True for #3, #7 & #9: You are likely a Kinesthetic/Tactile Learner. Engage in hands-on activities and try to incorporate movement into your learning.

Mostly True for #4, #8 & #10: You resonate with the Reading/Writing Learning Style. You might benefit from taking notes, writing summaries, or reading materials multiple times.

What are Learning Disabilities?

While everyone has preferred learning styles, some people might need more assistance with their education. If you or someone you know struggles in the classroom, it might be due to a learning disability.

Learning disabilities can be thought of as hurdles in the race of learning. They may make certain tasks more challenging, but with the right strategies and support, students can overcome these hurdles and succeed.

Several organizations provide tools and support for families, educators, and people with learning disabilities. Countries worldwide are all working towards making learning more accessible and inclusive. 

In the US, the American Library Association has a list of these types of organizations and resources. There is also a Learning Disabilities Association of America. The National Center for Learning Disabilities provides advocacy, research, and scholarship opportunities.


Dyslexia is a condition that makes reading difficult. Those with dyslexia might mix up letters, struggle with understanding words, or read very slowly. 

This disability has been recognized for over a century. In the past, people believed it was related to vision problems. However, modern understanding links it to how the brain processes words. 

It's estimated that about 1 in 5 people show some signs of dyslexia. Fortunately, some strategies help, such as phonics-based instruction, audiobooks, and multi-sensory teaching methods, like tracing letters in sand.


Dyscalculia can be described as dyslexia but for math. Individuals with this condition may struggle with basic math operations or understanding numbers. 

This disability is lesser known and was only properly identified in the 20th century. Roughly 5-7% of the population might have dyscalculia. Visual aids, hands-on activities, and breaking down math problems into smaller steps have been found helpful for those with this condition.


People with Dysgraphia find it challenging to write by hand. They might have difficulty forming letters, or their handwriting might be challenging to decipher.

Like dyscalculia, it's lesser known but has gained recognition in recent decades. Estimates suggest that around 5-10% of people might grapple with dysgraphia. To assist them, technologies such as keyboards or voice-to-text software can be used, and practicing with occupational therapists can also be beneficial.


ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) affects a person's ability to focus, remain still, or wait their turn. There is lots of information about ADHD and free tests to see if you might have ADHD.

While doctors have observed symptoms resembling ADHD for over a century, the condition became more broadly recognized in the 1960s and 70s. About 5-10% of kids might have ADHD. Strategies that can help include allowing frequent breaks, facilitating hands-on activities, and setting clear, concise tasks. Some individuals also benefit from medications.

Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders

Lastly, there are Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders. These disorders involve challenges with processing what the eyes see or the ears hear. It's not about vision or hearing problems but how the brain interprets this information. 

These conditions have gained more attention in recent decades as our knowledge about brain processing has deepened. While exact numbers are uncertain, they're believed to be less prevalent than conditions like dyslexia. 

For those with auditory processing issues, reducing background noise can be beneficial. Meanwhile, for visual processing challenges, tools like larger text or different colors can help.


In conclusion, learning disabilities might pose specific challenges, but they don’t determine a person’s intelligence or potential. With empathy, the right strategies, and a supportive environment, every individual can achieve their goals. 

If you or someone you know has these challenges, it's essential to remember that they are just one part of who they are, and with the right tools and support, everyone can shine!

Tailoring Education to Unique Learning Challenges: Strategies for Specific Learning Disabilities

Every child has the right to education, but for those with learning disabilities, access to education must be paired with the right teaching strategies. A learning disability does not indicate intelligence levels but rather a different way the brain processes information. As such, these children require specialized approaches that cater to their unique ways of learning. Let's explore some specific learning disabilities and strategies that can make a world of difference.

Dyslexia and Multi-Sensory Reading Programs

Dyslexia is perhaps one of the most recognized learning disabilities, with difficulties with accurate and fluent word recognition, poor spelling, and decoding abilities. A multi-sensory approach that has proven effective for individuals with dyslexia is the Orton-Gillingham method. This approach uses sight, sound, touch, and movement to help students connect language with letters and words. By engaging multiple senses simultaneously, students with dyslexia can better encode and decode language, improving their reading and spelling skills.

Dyscalculia and Visual-Spatial Aids

Dyscalculia refers to difficulty in understanding numbers and mathematical concepts. To support students with dyscalculia, visual-spatial aids such as number lines, dot arrays, and manipulatives can be very helpful. These tools allow learners to touch, see, and manipulate objects, thus engaging multiple senses to reinforce mathematical concepts and operations. For instance, using physical blocks to represent numbers in an addition problem can make abstract concepts more concrete and understandable.

Dysgraphia and Kinesthetic Writing Exercises

Dysgraphia is a disability that affects writing abilities, making the act of writing difficult and sometimes painful. A multi-sensory strategy that can assist is kinesthetic writing exercises. This involves using large movements to form letters, such as writing in the air with a finger or tracing letters on textured surfaces. Combining visual, auditory, and tactile elements, such as saying the letter aloud while writing it, can reinforce the learning process.

ADHD and Interactive Learning Environments

Although not exclusively a learning disability, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can significantly impact learning. Students with ADHD often benefit from an interactive learning environment with physical activity. For example, incorporating games that involve movement or allowing for hands-on experiments can help maintain engagement and focus. Moreover, integrating short, varied tasks that require active participation can help keep students with ADHD interested and attentive.

Executive Functioning Disorder and Structured Multi-Step Tasks

Executive Functioning Disorder can manifest as trouble with planning, organizing, and carrying out tasks. To assist learners with this disorder, educators can break down tasks into smaller, manageable steps and pair them with multi-sensory cues. For instance, a student might use a visual checklist that incorporates colors and symbols for different stages of a task, combined with verbal reminders and hands-on organization tools like planners or mobile apps.

What is the Role of AI in Education?

Artificial Intelligence, abbreviated as AI, is a computerized brain. AI has gained widespread popularity within education. Let's discuss how AI can enhance our learning experiences while considering the precautions we should take when harnessing its potential.

Advantages of AI in Learning:

Helping You Personally: AI can figure out what you're good at and what you need help with. Then, it gives you lessons that fit just right for you. It's like having a personal helper for your studies!

Quick Answers: With AI, you can get answers right away. If you make a mistake in math, for example, AI can show you where you went wrong immediately.

Help for Everyone: If some students have trouble reading, writing, or paying attention, AI tools can help them in special ways.

Teachers Get More Time: AI can do some jobs, like checking tests, really fast. This means teachers have more time to teach and help students.

Challenges Posed by AI in Learning:

Too Much Dependence: AI tools are great, but we shouldn't use them all the time. We must think for ourselves and talk with other students and teachers. Critical thinking, creativity, and human interaction are elements of education that machines can't replicate.

Safety: AI needs a lot of information to work. We have to make sure our personal information is safe and private.

Not Everyone Gets It: Some schools might not have the latest AI tools. This isn't fair because every student should have the same learning opportunity.

Mistakes Can Happen: AI doesn't always get things right. Sometimes it might give wrong or confusing answers.

In the end, AI can be a cool tool in schools, but we have to use it the right way. It's there to help us, but it doesn't replace teachers or the fun of learning with classmates!

Instructional Strategy Quiz Answers

Scenario 1: Cooperative Learning

Scenario 2: Direct Instruction

Scenario 3: Differentiated Instruction

Scenario 4: Inquiry-Based Learning

Scenario 5: Game-Based Learning

Scenario 6: Flipped Classroom

Reference this article:

Practical Psychology. (2023, August). 37+ Instructional Strategies (Examples + Quizzes). Retrieved from https://practicalpie.com/instructional-strategies-examples/.

About The Author

Photo of author