Interoceptive Exposure (30 Examples + Therapy Guide)

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Imagine you're about to give a big presentation at school or work. Your heart is pounding like a drum, your palms are sweaty, and you feel like a swarm of butterflies is having a party in your stomach. We've all been there, right? Those feelings are not only super uncomfortable, but they can also make it really hard to focus and do your best.

But what if there was a way to better understand those weird body sensations and take control of them? That's where something called "interoceptive exposure" comes into play. This technique is like a training program for your mind and body, helping you become a pro at handling anxiety and stress.

Interoceptive exposure is a type of therapy that helps people get comfortable with uncomfortable body sensations like a racing heart or shallow breathing. By practicing specific exercises under guided supervision, individuals learn how to understand and manage these feelings, making it easier to cope with anxiety or stress.

In this article, we're going to take a deep dive into what interoceptive exposure is, where it comes from, who can benefit from it, and why it's super important. We'll also explain how it works, share some of its benefits and limitations, and guide you on how to get started if you think it might be right for you.

What is Interoceptive Exposure?


Interoceptive exposure is a special kind of therapy where you practice feeling uncomfortable body sensations on purpose. Sounds strange, right? But the idea is to help you get used to those feelings so they don't freak you out as much.

It's like learning to ride a bike; at first, it's scary, but once you get the hang of it, you wonder why you were scared in the first place!

So, you might be asking, how is this different from other kinds of therapy? Well, there's another type of therapy called "exposure therapy," which helps people face their fears by exposing them to the very things they're afraid of.

For example, if you're afraid of spiders, you might spend time looking at pictures of spiders or even holding one! Interoceptive exposure is like that but focuses more on the body sensations that come with feeling scared or anxious, rather than the thing itself.

Why should we care about our body's sensations? Great question! Our bodies give us all kinds of signals, like when we're hungry or tired. These signals also clue us in on our emotional state.

Understanding what our bodies are trying to tell us is super important for our mental health. By getting to know these sensations through interoceptive exposure, we can learn to manage our feelings better and live happier lives.

The History Behind Interoceptive Exposure

Interoceptive exposure has its roots in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a form of psychological treatment that was developed in the 1960s. CBT aims to help people change harmful patterns of thinking or behavior.

As part of this broader approach, interoceptive exposure was developed to focus on the physiological, or body-based, symptoms of mental health conditions. Dr. David Barlow, a pioneer in the field of clinical psychology, is often credited with developing this technique.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Barlow and his colleagues realized that many people who experienced anxiety or panic attacks were reacting to uncomfortable bodily sensations like a racing heart or shallow breathing.

The Original Focus on Panic Disorders

Initially, interoceptive exposure was most commonly used for treating panic disorders. If you've ever experienced a panic attack, you'll know that it involves intense physical sensations, such as heart palpitations and hyperventilation.

Barlow and his team reasoned that exposing people to these sensations in a controlled setting would help them become less sensitive to them. So, therapists started using exercises like breath-holding or spinning in a chair to induce these sensations, guiding their patients through the process of experiencing and tolerating them.

Evolution: Expanding the Scope

Over the years, the use of interoceptive exposure began to expand. By the early 2000s, researchers and clinicians like Dr. Michelle Craske started applying it to other anxiety disorders and even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Studies began to show that the technique could be effective for a variety of conditions, not just panic disorder. This led to the development of a wider range of exercises tailored to different sensations and symptoms.

For instance, a person with a social anxiety disorder might work on tolerating the feeling of blushing or sweating in public.

Advancements in Technology

In recent years, advancements in technology have allowed for even more personalized approaches. Virtual reality setups, biofeedback machines, and smartphone apps are now being used alongside traditional methods to enhance the interoceptive exposure experience.

These tools help people track their bodily sensations and offer new ways to practice exposure exercises, sometimes even in the comfort of their own homes.

Significance of Interoceptive Exposure

The significance of interoceptive exposure in the field of psychology cannot be overstated. Before this approach, many treatments focused mainly on the external triggers of anxiety or panic, like a specific phobia or a traumatic event.

Interoceptive exposure shifted the focus inward, allowing clinicians to address the bodily sensations that often accompany these mental states. This has provided a whole new angle for tackling mental health issues. Moreover, its effectiveness is supported by a considerable body of scientific research, making it a well-respected method in the healthcare community.

Who Can Benefit from Interoceptive Exposure?

girl wearing a virtual reality headset

You might be wondering, "Is interoceptive exposure right for me?" Well, the technique has shown promise for a variety of people dealing with emotional difficulties. Initially designed for those experiencing panic attacks, it has since widened its scope.

Now, people with general anxiety disorders, social anxiety, specific phobias, and even PTSD have found relief through this method. So if you struggle with any sort of anxiety or stress that has a big physical component—like a pounding heart or fast breathing—this approach could be worth exploring.

Age Factor

But what about age? Is this just for adults or can kids try it too? The good news is that both adults and young people can benefit from interoceptive exposure.

Therapists have adapted techniques to suit different age groups. So whether you're a teenager worried about exams or an adult stressed about work, there's likely a form of interoceptive exposure that can help you.

Caution: Who Should Be Careful?

While interoceptive exposure is a powerful tool, it's not for everyone. People with certain medical conditions that cause similar sensations—like heart issues—should consult their healthcare provider before attempting this therapy.

Also, those with severe mental health conditions, like acute PTSD or extreme phobias, may need a more comprehensive treatment plan. Remember, it's always best to consult a qualified healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and personalized guidance.

Why is Interoceptive Exposure Important?

Making the Mind-Body Connection

First off, let's talk about how your body and your mind are connected. You've probably heard the phrase "mind over matter," right? While that saying is catchy, it's actually a little bit true when it comes to your mental and physical well-being.

Our thoughts and feelings often show up in our bodies in ways we might not even notice. Maybe you clench your fists when you're angry, or maybe your stomach knots up when you're nervous. Interoceptive exposure helps you pay attention to these signals so you can understand what your body is telling you.

Coping with Modern Life

Life today is super busy and filled with all sorts of stressors, from schoolwork and exams to job pressures and social obligations. This can really crank up your stress levels, and if you don't know how to handle that, it can affect your health over time.

Interoceptive exposure can be a useful tool in your stress-busting toolkit. It equips you with the skills to handle life's curveballs more effectively.

Better Emotional Regulation

Have you ever done something you regretted because you were just too emotional at the moment? It happens to the best of us. Managing our emotions is a key part of being a happy, well-adjusted person.

By understanding the physical sensations that come with different emotions, interoceptive exposure helps you get better at controlling how you react to situations. Think of it as an "emotional thermometer" that helps you gauge how you're feeling so you can take steps to cool down or warm up as needed.

Reduced Stigma

Let's face it; there's still a lot of stigma around mental health issues. People often feel ashamed or embarrassed to seek help.

But remember, interoceptive exposure is grounded in science, just like treatments for physical conditions like a broken leg or asthma. The more we talk about and understand techniques like this, the easier it'll be for people to get the help they need without feeling judged or misunderstood.

Examples of Interoceptive Exposure


Interoceptive exposure can be used in various situations to help people manage uncomfortable bodily sensations often associated with emotional states like anxiety or fear. These examples illustrate the wide range of applications for interoceptive exposure in treating various types of anxiety and fear-based disorders or situations.

Panic Disorder: To help people get used to sensations like a racing heart or shortness of breath.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: For teaching coping skills for feelings of general unease or nervousness.

Social Anxiety: To help people manage physical symptoms like blushing or sweating in social situations. (We also have a list of jobs suitable for people with social anxiety!)

Specific Phobias: Like fear of heights, to get accustomed to sensations like dizziness or vertigo.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): For handling triggers that result in hypervigilance or an accelerated heartbeat.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): To manage the anxiety caused by not performing a ritual.

Agoraphobia: For dealing with sensations like dizziness or heart palpitations when leaving a "safe" space.

Fear of Flying: To manage anxiety symptoms like tense muscles or rapid breathing during flights.

Driving Anxiety: For people who get anxious sensations like a pounding heart while driving.

Test Anxiety: To help students cope with sensations like stomach knots before or during exams.

Stage Fright: For performers who experience shaky hands or a quivering voice.

Fear of Public Speaking: To manage dry mouth, shaking legs, or rapid heartbeat.

Medical Procedures: For people who fear needles, MRI machines, etc., to manage associated sensations.

Childbirth: To help expectant mothers manage sensations like pain or shortness of breath.

Dental Anxiety: To manage feelings of tension or increased heart rate during dental work.

Performance Anxiety in Athletes: To help cope with sensations like muscle tension or a racing heart.

First Dates: For dealing with sensations like sweaty palms or a fluttering stomach.

Job Interviews: To manage symptoms like shaky hands or a trembling voice.

Eating in Public: For those who experience stomach discomfort or rapid breathing.

Networking Events: To manage sensations like hot flashes or feeling faint.

Shopping in Crowded Places: For dealing with feelings of being overwhelmed or dizzy.

Elevator Phobia: To get used to sensations like feeling trapped or difficulty breathing.

Fear of Enclosed Spaces (Claustrophobia) and Being Trapped (Cleithrophobia): For managing feelings like a tight chest or rapid breathing.

Extreme Sports: To manage fear-based sensations like trembling or a racing heart.

Fear of Animals: To get accustomed to feelings like muscle tension or a pounding heart around certain animals.

Fear of Water: For getting used to sensations like feeling choked or constricted breathing.

Going to the Gym: For people who feel self-conscious and experience sensations like rapid breathing or a pounding heart.

Taking Public Transport: To manage sensations like feeling trapped or difficulty breathing.

Attending Large Events: For managing sensations like being overwhelmed or shaky in crowds.

Fear of Dark Spaces: To help people get used to sensations like a racing heart or rapid breathing in the dark.

How Does Interoceptive Exposure Work?

The Basics: Controlled Exposure

Let's start with the basic idea: interoceptive exposure is like a "practice run" for dealing with scary or uncomfortable bodily sensations.

Imagine you're practicing for a big soccer game. You wouldn't just show up on the day of the match and hope for the best, right? You'd practice over and over until you felt confident.

That's similar to how interoceptive exposure works. You practice feeling certain sensations in a safe, controlled environment until they're less frightening.

Step-by-Step Process

So what does this practice look like? Usually, it goes something like this:

  1. Identification: First, you and your therapist figure out which sensations bother you the most. Maybe it's a racing heart or feeling dizzy.
  2. Simulation: Next, you'll do exercises that mimic these sensations. For example, if your issue is a racing heart, you might jog in place.
  3. Observation: While you're experiencing these sensations, you'll be asked to pay close attention to them. What does it feel like? Can you describe it?
  4. Reflection: After the exercise, you'll talk about what you felt with your therapist. Did it feel as bad as you thought it would? Did anything surprise you?
  5. Repetition: Like anything, practice makes perfect. You'll repeat these exercises multiple times, gradually getting used to the sensations.

Tools and Techniques

In a therapy session, various tools might be used to aid the process. These can include heart rate monitors to track your pulse or biofeedback machines that show you real-time data about your bodily functions.

Some therapists even use virtual reality to simulate environments that might trigger sensations, offering a very immersive experience.

At-Home Practice

One of the coolest things about interoceptive exposure is that you can practice it at home too! Many therapists will give you "homework" exercises to try between sessions.

Plus, there are apps and online resources that offer guided exercises, making it easier to practice wherever you are.

Adaptation and Progress

Over time, the idea is that you'll become less sensitive to these sensations. This is known as "habituation." Imagine eating something spicy; the first bite might be a shock, but as you keep eating, it becomes more tolerable.

The same principle applies here: repeated exposure helps you get used to the sensation, making it less scary and easier to manage in everyday life.

The Pros and Cons of Interoceptive Exposure

therapy session


Evidence-Based: One of the strongest points in favor of interoceptive exposure is that it's supported by science. Numerous studies have shown that it can be an effective treatment for various anxiety disorders, which means it's not just a fad—it has real results.

Personalized Treatment: The exercises used in interoceptive exposure can be tailored to fit your specific needs. Whether you're dealing with social anxiety, panic attacks, or PTSD, there's likely an exercise that targets your particular symptoms.

Skill Development: This method doesn't just help you in the short term; it equips you with skills you can use for the rest of your life. Learning to manage bodily sensations can help you handle new, stressful situations more effectively.

Increased Awareness: As you become more familiar with your bodily sensations, you'll also become more aware of your emotional states. This increased self-awareness can be valuable in all areas of life, from your relationships to your work.

Accessibility: While it's beneficial to start interoceptive exposure with a trained therapist, many of the exercises can be practiced at home. This makes it a more accessible option for people who might have difficulty attending regular therapy sessions.


Not a One-Size-Fits-All: While interoceptive exposure has been effective for many people, it's not a cure-all. Some people may find that it doesn't fully address their symptoms or that they need additional forms of treatment to get the relief they're looking for.

Initial Discomfort: Let's be real—facing uncomfortable sensations head-on can be, well, uncomfortable. This initial discomfort can be a barrier for some people, making them hesitant to continue with the treatment.

Health Restrictions: As mentioned earlier, people with certain medical conditions should consult with their healthcare provider before starting interoceptive exposure. The physical exercises could exacerbate symptoms of some medical conditions.

Skill Level: The effectiveness of this technique also depends on the skill and experience of the therapist. A less experienced therapist might not be as effective in guiding you through the exercises and helping you interpret your sensations.

How to Get Started with Interoceptive Exposure

Finding the Right Therapist

The first step in embarking on your interoceptive exposure journey is to find a qualified therapist who is experienced in this technique. You can ask for recommendations from your primary healthcare provider or search online databases of mental health professionals.

Make sure to check their credentials and see if they specialize in treating anxiety disorders or use interoceptive exposure as part of their approach.

Initial Consultation

Once you've found a therapist you're interested in, the next step is usually an initial consultation.

This is a meeting where you can talk about your symptoms, what you hope to achieve, and get a feel for whether the therapist is a good fit for you. This is also the time when the therapist will evaluate if interoceptive exposure is appropriate for your needs.

Starting Therapy Sessions

After the initial consultation, you'll start attending regular therapy sessions. These can be weekly or bi-weekly, depending on your needs and the therapist's recommendations. During these sessions, you'll learn different interoceptive exercises tailored to your specific symptoms and start practicing them.

Setting Goals

Your therapist will likely set some goals for you to work towards. These could be short-term, like practicing a specific exercise at home, or long-term, like reducing the frequency of panic attacks. Goal-setting helps you track your progress and gives you something concrete to work towards.

Monitoring Progress

Throughout your treatment, your therapist will keep tabs on how you're doing. This might include using questionnaires to measure your anxiety levels or other methods to gauge your progress.

You might also use a journal or an app to track your sensations and emotional responses, giving you a clearer picture of your improvement over time.

Gradual Exposure

It's important to know that interoceptive exposure is usually a gradual process. You'll start with less challenging exercises and work your way up to more difficult ones as you get more comfortable. This ensures that you're not overwhelmed and makes the treatment more effective.

Adapting and Tweaking

Therapy is not set in stone. As you make progress or encounter challenges, your therapist may adapt the exercises or try different approaches to make sure the treatment is as effective as possible for you.

Maintenance and Follow-Up

Even after you've completed a series of therapy sessions, it's common to have follow-up appointments to make sure you're maintaining your new skills and managing any remaining symptoms. Some people also choose to continue with "booster" sessions to reinforce what they've learned.


Interoceptive exposure might sound like a complicated term, but it's actually a pretty straightforward idea. It's all about practicing to get comfortable with the uncomfortable, whether that's a racing heart, sweaty palms, or a churning stomach.

Just like a soccer player practices kicks and goals, this therapy helps you practice handling tough sensations, so you're better equipped to deal with them in real life.

We've explored what interoceptive exposure is, how it works, and the pros and cons. We even dived into a whole list of situations where it could be super helpful. From panic attacks to stage fright, this evidence-based therapy has a lot to offer.

However, remember that it's not a magic cure. It's most effective when guided by a trained therapist, and it might not work for everyone. Plus, it's usually just one part of a bigger treatment plan. Still, for many people, it's a game-changer, offering a path to a life with less anxiety and more freedom to do the things they love.

So if you're tired of being held back by uncomfortable sensations and the fears that come with them, interoceptive exposure might be worth exploring. Talk to a healthcare provider to find out if it could be a good fit for you.

Reference this article:

Practical Psychology. (2023, September). Interoceptive Exposure (30 Examples + Therapy Guide). Retrieved from

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