Perceptual Reasoning (Definition + Examples)

What’s harder to complete? Reading a nonfiction book or completing a 1,000-piece puzzle? 

Depending on your abilities and experience, you might have a different answer than the person next to you or your significant other. You use different skills to complete each task. And unfortunately, one set of skills is often valued higher than another when you’re taking tests for school or to get certain jobs. People with high perceptual reasoning abilities, for example, may take a puzzle over a nonfiction book any day. And while their ability to complete a puzzle fast may not be the one skill that gets them into college, perceptual reasoning is crucial to solving many everyday problems. 

What Is Perceptual Reasoning? 

Perceptual reasoning is the ability to take in visual information and organize it, interpret it, and use it to solve problems. No verbal communication is required. If you’re solving a problem that requires you to visualize the solution in your head, you’re using perceptual reasoning.

Perceptual reasoning abilities can make life a lot easier. You could be looking at a map in a different language, but with high perceptual reasoning abilities, you may be able to get from Point A to Point B. 

People with high perceptual reasoning abilities may prefer to “learn by doing” or learn through visual aids. Rather than hearing the directions, it’s usually easier to see them. 

Tasks and Problems That Require Perceptual Reasoning Abilities

tasks that require perceptual reasoning skills

You might have high perceptual reasoning abilities if you can: 

  • Take a computer apart and put it back together
  • Read a map or find your way around a neighborhood without assistance 
  • Estimate the distance between two objects with ease  
  • Assemble furniture quickly 
  • Draw or paint well

How To Improve Perceptual Reasoning Skills

Test and build your perceptual reasoning skills by:

  • Playing with puzzles (including 3D puzzles!) 
  • Learning origami
  • Challenging your friend (or a computer) to a game of chess
  • Building a model airplane
  • Playing a video game like Tetris 
  • Using a physical map to get around a new city
  • Communicating with a friend without words 
  • Trying a new sport or physical practice 

Perceptual Reasoning and The Different Types of Intelligence 

You may be considered intelligent if you can assemble furniture without minimal help. You may also be considered intelligent if you can read a book and put together a report on that book. And while educational standards may tell you that one of these skills is more important, they are still both valid types of intelligence. 

perceptual reasoning vs other types of intelligence

A few different educational psychologists have created theories around the idea of multiple intelligences. In 1938, Louis Thurnstone wrote that intelligence did not just come from one general ability. He listed seven “primary mental abilities,” including verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, and spatial visualization. Howard Gardener has provided a more up-to-date theory on multiple intelligences. Gardener listed a set of eight intelligences, including visual-spatial intelligence and verbal-linguistic intelligence. 

The work of these psychologists and others have influenced the way that we measure intelligence and qualify someone as advanced or deficient in some areas.  

WAIS-IV

WAIS-IV

The Perceptual Reasoning Index Scale is one of the four subtests of the current Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS.) WAIS is an IQ test given to adults to measure their intelligence and cognitive abilities. 

WAIS-IV, the current version of the test, is the first version that includes a “perceptual reasoning” scale. In earlier versions of the WAIS, “perceptual reasoning” was called “perceptual organization.” 

To measure perceptual reasoning, participants are given three to five tasks: 

  • Block Design: Participants are given a model in a book constructed from red and white blocks. The participant must recreate the model using the blocks under a time constraint. 
  • Matrix Reasoning: Participants are given a set of pictures with one missing picture. Then, they are given a set of five additional pictures. Out of those five pictures, the participant must choose the missing picture. 
  • Visual Puzzles: Participants look at a puzzle in a book. Then, they are given a set of individual pieces. They choose which of those pieces would fit in the puzzle. 
  • Picture Completion: Similar to the Visual Puzzles task, participants must choose an image that completes a picture. 
  • Figure Weights: Participants are shown a picture of a scale with a set of shapes or images on one side of the scale. They choose from a set of images or shapes to “balance” out the scale. 

Perceptual Reasoning tests, along with Working Memory, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed tests, create a participant’s General Ability Index and Full Scale IQ scores. 

Interpreting WAIS-IV Scores

Children who score low in all of these areas may be diagnosed with conditions like ADHD or Aspberger’s. Interestingly enough, children with high-functioning forms of these conditions often score very high on perceptual reasoning tests. 

Perceptual Reasoning vs. Other Forms of Intelligence 

While you may be able to find blocks on an IQ test, you might not see them in the classroom past preschool. College admissions officers don’t require students to put together puzzles in order to be accepted. 

Our current education system values verbal reasoning over perceptual reasoning. Tests ask you to read and write before they ask you to construct a photo or find the missing puzzle piece. But verbal-linguistic intelligence is just one form of intelligence, according to Howard Gardner. Verbal comprehension and word fluency are just two skills that contribute to overall intelligence, according to Louis Thurstone. 

With today’s testing, a student with high verbal comprehension skills may be considered highly intelligent, even if they have little perceptual reasoning abilities. Conversely, a student with visual and spatial intelligence may not get the same praise or recognition if they suffer on verbal and linguistic tests. 

But as you heard earlier in the video, these skills are crucial to solving certain problems and being successful in specific fields. You won’t always be given verbal directions. There are a lot of problems that you will need to solve by “doing.” 

So don’t let a standardized test based on one type of intelligence tell you that you aren’t intelligent. Don’t let a standardized test based on one type of intelligence tell you that you’re more intelligent than someone else. Everyone has different abilities and holds different types of intelligence. Use a test like WAIS-IV to get a bigger picture of your intelligence. As you discover where your strengths lie, you will be able to find the best ways to learn and solve problems in your unique way.

About the author 

Theodore

Theodore created PracticalPsychology while in college and has transformed the educational online space of psychology. His goal is to help people improve their lives by understanding how their brains work. 1,700,000 Youtube subscribers and a growing team of psychologists, the dream continues strong!

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